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万能材料试验机中的压缩试验步骤


    压缩实验是研究材料性能常用的实验方法。对铸铁、铸造合金、建筑材料等脆性材料尤为合适。通过液压万能试验机压缩实验观察材料的变形过程、破坏形式,并与拉伸实验进行比较,可以分析不同应力状态对材料强度、塑性的影响,从而对材料的机械性能有比较全面的认识。
    压缩试验在压力试验机上进行。当试件受压时,其上下两端面与试验机支撑之间产生很大的摩擦力,使试件两端的横向变形受到阻碍,故压缩后试件呈鼓形。摩擦力的存在会影响试件的抗压能力甚至破坏形式。为了尽量减少摩擦力的影响,实验时试件两端必须保证平行,并与轴线垂直,使试件受轴向压力。另外。端面加工应有较高的光洁度。
    低碳钢压缩时也会发生屈服,但并不象拉伸那样有明显的屈服阶段。因此,在测定Ps时要特别注意观察。在缓慢均匀加载下,测力指针等速转动,当材料发生屈服时,测力指针转动将减慢,甚至倒退。这时对应的载荷即为屈服载荷Ps。屈服之后加载到试件产生明显变形即停止加载。这是因为低碳钢受压时变形较大而不破裂,因此愈压愈扁。横截面增大时,其实际应力不随外载荷增加而增加,故不可能得到最大载荷Pb,因此也得不到强度极限σb,所以在实验中是以变形来控制加载的。
    铸铁试件压缩时,在达到最大载荷Pb前出现较明显的变形然后破裂,此时试验机测力指针迅速倒退,从动针读取最大载荷Pb值,铸铁试件最后略呈故形,断裂面与试件轴线大约呈45°。
    (1)电子万能试验机准备。根据估算的最大载荷,选择合适的示力度盘(量程)按相应的操作规程进行操作。
    (2)测量试件的直径和高度。测量试件两端及中部三处的截面直径,取三处中最小一处的平均直径计算横截面面积。
    (3)将试件放在试验机活动台球形支撑板中心处。
    (4)开动试验机,使活动台上升,对试件进行缓慢均匀加载,加载速度为0.5mm/min。对于低碳钢,要及时记录其屈服载荷,超过屈服载荷后,继续加载,将试件压成鼓形即可停止加载。铸铁试件加压至试件破坏为止,记录最大载荷。
    (5)取出试件,将试验机恢复原状。观察试件。

 

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